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Effect of Reduction Ratio and Heat ... - SpringerLink

Introduction. It is known that the parameters used in the stages of the production of ingots, the hot forging reduction ratio in particular, affect the density of the metal, its loss in subsequent heat treatment, and the stability of the mechanical properties over cross section of the ready article.

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How do you calculate forging reduction ratio? - Answers

Grain depression is a reduction of the humidity ratio/specific humidity expressed as a difference between ambient air and the output of a dehumidifier. It can also be expressed between two area ...

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FORGING - large.stanford.edu

For forging of the largest forged pieces, e.g. for a pressure vessel of the EPR reactors AP1000 the required press power is 150 MN and an ingot weight 350 t, at least. In these days some suitable capacities for forging heavy forged pieces can be found out in Japan (Japan Steel Works), in China (China First Heavy Industries and China Erzhong) in ...

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Definition of reduction ratio | Dictionary

Reduction ratio definition, an expression of the number of times by which an original document has been reduced in a microcopy. See more.

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119/131r - apps.dtic.mil

Forging Process for Axisymmetric Shapes", covers the analytical work performed under Contract No. DAAG46-68-C-0111 by Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio, from April 30, 1969, to July 15, 1969. This work was administered under the technical direction of Mr. Dennis Green of the Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center, Watertown ...

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On the analysis of cast structure and its changes during ...

ratio only of the order of three, and therefore cast structure is still of importance for the final product and the porosity consolidation is of importance. +1 = i i A A Forging reduction (1) Forging two or several products from one forging ingot is an old method of increasing the forging reduction for a given product, an example can be seen in

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CLASS PROGRAMME Approval of manufacturers

—the reduction ratio for the products for approval testing shall be representative for the later production of the similar products. When applicable, specific approval will be given on the certificate for the following additional conditions:

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What is the effect of reduction ratio (of steelmaking) on ...

In hot forging process, when we heat the work piece up-to 1200oC. It surface begin to rupture, due to oxidation of iron. This oxide layer penetrates into the metal surface when we deform it with ...

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Forging Ahead for Gear Applications | Gear Solutions ...

Forging Ahead for Gear Applications. Since the finish of the gear will be "as-forged," and noise is a critical requirement in many gear applications, the net-forged gear must be forged in an inert environment with turned and polished raw material to achieve the finish requirements necessary for an AGMA 8-9 gear.

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Forging Ahead for Gear Applications | Gear Solutions ...

At Cornell Forge Company, we supply net-forged bevel gears for use as drives for combines as well as many other agricultural, marine, construction, and off-highway applications. We also supply an AGMA class 7-8 net-forged bevel gear for heavy duty deck mowers where gears and gear reliability are critical to the reputation of a product and its ...

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Forged vs Stock Removal Knives | BladeForums

Jul 22, 2019 · When forging the edge bevel and especially the tip you can achieve a decent reduction ratio. This reduction is done in the areas that see the most use so to speak. Jul 22, 2019 #7

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How to Calculate Reduction Ratio | Sciencing

A gear-reduction ratio is calculated directly from the number of teeth on each gear. The number of teeth is a simple value to obtain and that is all you need to complete this computation. After you calculate this ratio, you can use it for any other computation you -- need such as speed or torque.

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CLASS PROGRAMME Approval of manufacturers

—reduction ratio for each shaping operation —typical forging temperature range for each shaping operation —descaling treatment during forging —the minimum and maximum forging ratio for the finished forging shall be given. Approval for a "special forging process for case hardened gear transmissions" shall be combined with an MSA

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Hot Forming Simulation | simufact

Due to the strength reduction under hot forging conditions, the force and work demand of the processes can be lowered in comparison to cold forming. The recrystallization is responsible, through the complete reformation of the microstructure, possibly ple times, for .

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Definition of reduction ratio | Dictionary

Reduction ratio definition, an expression of the number of times by which an original document has been reduced in a microcopy. See more.

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Forging Manufacturing Definitions and Terms | Engineers Edge

Forging reduction: ratio of the cross-sectional area before and after forging; sometimes refers to percentage reduction in thickness. Forging stock: wrought rod, bar, etc. used as the raw material or stock in forging.

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Forging Terms F-I | Forging Knowledge by QCF

Forging reduction: ratio of the cross-sectional area before and after forging; sometimes refers to percentage reduction in thickness. Forging stock: wrought rod, bar, etc. used as the raw material or stock in forging. Free-machining-steel forgings: those made from steels with special alloying-element additions to facilitate machining.

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Forging Quality in Steel Ingot Manufacturing & Conversion

Forging Reduction ≠Rolling Reduction Overall Deformation = Forging Deformation + Rolling Deformation Hot work has to be simulated, evaluated and combined "Hot work eliminates porosity, but the amount required to produce full density in bars is a function of the method by which the hot work is applied." –ASPPRC Publication 1

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Caluclating Forging Reductions | Forging

A: Forging reduction is generally considered to be the amount of cross-sectional reduction taking place during drawing out of a bar or billet. The original cross-section divided by the final cross-section is the forging ratio (say 3:1). There is an equivalent reduction on upsetting for forgings being upset during forging (gear blanks, for example).

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Cost Reduction in Hot Forging By Use of Environment ...

• Reduction of friction during hot forging by the use of polished dies and suitable die lubricant. • Correct method of application of die lubricant at appropriate intervals. Requirements for Hot Forging Die Lubricants. The basic function of any lubricant is to reduce friction between two surfaces and to .

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